Research into the benefits of VR for training, therapy and businesses

VirtualSpeech white paper - VR for soft skills training

Virginia Beqiri, VirtualSpeech

Summary: As the VR industry matures, more and more soft skills training will be performed in VR and it will soon become a staple of employee training. Companies who are early to adopt the technology will have a huge advantage over their competitors.

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Published papers mentioning / using VirtualSpeech

Therapist-led and at-home one-session Virtual Reality exposure therapy for public speaking anxiety using consumer hardware and software, with online maintenance: A randomized controlled trial

Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm University
Philip Lindner, Alexander Miloff, Per Carlbring


Virtual reality in education: a tool for learning in the experience age

Teachers College, Columbia University
Elliot Hu-Au and Joey J. Lee


Explore augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR) for business

Kelley School of Business, Indiana University
Mana Farshid, Jeannette Paschen, Theresa Eriksson, Jan Kietzmann


Virtual reality in ESL

English Australia Journal
Michelle Cowans


Experiential Learning VR System for Studying Computer Architecture

Polytechnic University of Bucharest
Dascalu, Maria-Iuliana; Bagis, Sergean; Nitu, Melania; Ferche, Oana-Maria; Moldoveanu, Alin Dragos Bogdan


Eyewear Computing – Augmenting the Human with Head-Mounted Wearable Assistants

Max-Planck-Institut für Informatik, Google Inc., Keio University, Georgia Institute of Technology
Andreas Bulling, Ozan Cakmakci, Kai Kunze, and James M. Rehg


Published papers on VR and learning

Effectiveness of virtual reality-based instruction on students' learning outcomes in K-12 and higher education: A meta-analysis

Zahira Merchanta, Ernest T. Goetz, Lauren Cifuentes, Wendy Keeney-Kennicutt and Trina J. Davis
Journal: Computers & Education, Volume 70, January 2014, Pages 29-40

Summary: This article provides a meta-analysis of the effects of virtual reality technology-based instruction i.e. games, simulations and virtual worlds, in K-12 or in higher education. It's concluded that virtual reality environments are effective for teaching in K-12 and higher education as games, simulations and virtual worlds improved learning outcome gains - with games showing the largest learning gains. The authors discuss these findings to highlight what should be considered when designing virtual reality-based instruction.


Virtual reality and mixed reality for virtual learning environments

Zhigeng Pan, Adrian David Cheok, Hongwei Yang, Jiejie Zhu and Jiaoying Shi
Journal: Computers & Graphics, Volume 30, Issue 1, February 2006, Pages 20-28

Summary: Examines educational uses of virtual learning environments (VLE), especially looking at issues with learning, training and entertainment. They highlight that VLE can improve, motivate and stimulate learners' understanding, particularly when traditional learning has been too difficult or unsuitable. Users can also learn in a "quick and happy mode" in the VLE.


How does desktop virtual reality enhance learning outcomes? A structural equation modeling approach

Elinda Ai-Lim Lee, Kok Wai Wong, and Chun Che Fung
Journal: Computers & Education, Volume 55, Issue 4, December 2010, Pages 1424-1442

Summary: The authors examined how VR enhances learning by studying the determinants of effective learning in a desktop VR-based learning environment. Learning experience, which was measured by psychological factors such as, presence, motivation, cognitive benefits, active learning etc, was vital in affecting learning outcomes. The results are used to suggest how VR software developers can enhance learning effectiveness and improve their programs.


Virtual Reality Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Phobia: A Preliminary Controlled Study

E. Klinger, S. Bouchard, P. Légeron, S. Roy, F. Lauer, I. Chemin and P. Nugues
Journal: Cyberpsychology & Behavior, Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2005, Pages 76-88

Summary: This study used virtual reality therapy (VRT) to treat social phobia. The VRT consisted of exposure therapy, which was delivered using virtual elements, and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) with a therapist. There was a statistically and clinical significant improvement in these participants and there was not much difference between the efficacy of VRT and the control group who received traditional CBT.


Brief Virtual Reality Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety

Sandra R. Harris, Robert L. Kemmerling and Max M. North
CyberPsychology & Behavior, Volume 5, Issue 6, July 2004, Pages 543-550

Summary: Two groups of learners participated in this study - the experimental group completed individual virtual reality therapy and post-testing, and the control group only completed the post-testing. The self-report and physiological measures suggest that virtual reality treatments reduce public speaking anxiety.


Cognitive behavioral therapy for public‐speaking anxiety using virtual reality for exposure

Anderson PL, Zimand E, Hodges LF and Rothbaum BO
Journal: Depression and Anxiety, Volume 22, Issue 3, January 2005, Pages 156-158

Summary: Participants were treated for their public speaking anxiety using cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) with virtual reality elements used for exposure. The participants had to give a speech pre and post treatment. The results show a decrease on all self-report measures of public speaking anxiety and these were maintained at the three month follow-up. This suggests that pairing CBT with virtual reality for exposure is successful for treating phobias.


The future of interpersonal skills development: Immersive virtual reality training with virtual humans

Marianne Schmid Mast, Emmanuelle P. Kleinlogel, Benjamin Tur and Manuel Bachmann
Journal: Human Resource Development Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 2, January 2018, Pages 125-141

Summary: This paper looks at how immersive virtual reality (IVR) technology can be used for interpersonal skills training in organisations. They look at strengths and weaknesses. The authors propose a research agenda aiming to establish IVR interpersonal skills training.


Assessing Google Cardboard virtual reality as a content delivery system in business classrooms

Seung Hwan Lee, Ksenia Sergueeva, Mathew Catangui and Maria Kandaurova
Journal: Journal of Education for Business, Volume 92, Issue 4, April 2017, Pages 153-160

Summary: This study examined using Google Cardboard VR in business classrooms to teach content. The authors compared VR for delivering video-based content against using the traditional flat-screen format i.e. two-dimensional videos. Participants in the VR condition had higher ratings of enjoyment and interest.


A New Virtual Reality Environment Used for e-Learning

Zhenbo Li , Jun Yue , David Antonio Gómez Jáuregui
Conference paper for IT in Medicine & Education, 2009

Summary: The authors discuss building an interactive virtual e-learning environment to allow students to control their avatars and interact with virtual teachers and the virtual environment. They think that this type of system will increase student autonomy and enhance interest.


e-Learning through distributed virtual environments

C.Bourasa, A.Philopoulos and Th.Tsiatsos
Journal: Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Volume 24, Issue 3, July 2001, Pages 175-199

Summary: Presents the authors' work in multi-user distributed virtual environments which allow learners and teachers to meet and engage in seminars and tutorials. They also propose extensions and reforms of the current system to create a more efficient system which can be used as a virtual learning environment.


Virtual reality for collaborative e-learning

Teresa Monahan, Gavin McArdle and Michela Bertolotto
Journal: Computers & Education, Volume 50, Issue 4, May 2008, Pages 1339-1353

Summary: This article presents the authors' research and the development of CLEV-R, a Collaborative Learning Environment with Virtual Reality. It's a web-based system that uses VR, multimedia and communication tools to allow collaboration between learners. They discuss CLEV-R's features and present their initial findings.


Virtual Humans for Team Training in Virtual Reality

Rickel, Jeff & Johnson, W. (April 1999). Virtual Humans for Team Training in Virtual Reality. 217-238.
Appears in the Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference on AI in Education, July 1999, IOS Press.

Summary: Describes the use of virtual humans and distributed virtual reality to support team training where learners have to understand their individual role in a team and how to coordinate their actions with members of their team. The learners, teachers and virtual humans are in a virtual reality work that recreate their work environment so they can practice together in realistic situations. They describe this learning environment and issues with developing virtual humans for team training.


Virtual Reality Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Public Speaking Anxiety

Marilyn P. Safir, Helene S. Wallach and Margalit Bar-Zvi
Journal: Behavior Modification, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 235-246, March 2012

Summary: In their initial study the authors found that virtual reality cognitive-behavioural therapy (VRCBT) and CBT were significantly more effective at reducing public speaking anxiety compared to the wait-list control group. There were no significant differences in the results between the VRCBT and the CBT conditions but twice as many participants dropped out of the CBT group than from the VRCBT group. This suggests that VRCBT is as effective as CBT. The following study found that the treatment gains of the participants in the VRCBT and CBT groups were maintained at the one-year follow up.


A Comparison of Virtual and Physical Training Transfer of Bimanual Assembly Tasks

María Murcia-López ; Anthony Steed
IEEE, IEEE Computer Society

Summary: As we explore the use of consumer virtual reality technology for training applications, there is a need to evaluate its validity compared to more traditional training formats. In this paper, we present a study that compares the effectiveness of virtual training and physical training for teaching a bimanual assembly task.